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# Simple calculator

Online calculator for mathematical calculations in the Philippines

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x2
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## What is a calculator?

A calculator is a gadget that performs numerical operations. While addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division can be carried out through the most basic calculator, exponential operations, roots, logarithms, trigonometry, and hyperbolic functions are all supported by more advanced calculating tools. Internally, some calculators accomplish all of these tasks through repeating addition processes.

The slide rule, a more rudimentary calculator form, was widely used before 1970. It was made up of a slide, a wooden plank that could be slid in and out of a reinforced pair of slats. The slide and the outside pair of slots each had calibrated numerical scales. The cursor, a moveable, translucent sleeve, was used to align numerals on the scales. The slide rule did not require any power, but its precision was limited, and getting used to it required a learning curve.

The basic calculator became increasingly dominant in the 1970s, allowing the device to calculate using variables. The first personal computers were these. Today's personal computers can still execute these tasks, and most come with a virtual calculator program that seems to be a handheld calculator on the screen. Pointing and clicking are used to activate the buttons on the calculator.

## What are the different types of calculators?

Long before digital calculators and smartphones were invented, some calculation machines were created. The abacus, for instance, was in use long before the written Hindu-Arabic numeral system and was adopted in the ancient Near East, Europe, Russia, and China. Blaise Pascal invented the first "real calculator" in 1642. It was acclaimed for undertaking previously thought-to-be-impossible arithmetic calculations.

Mechanical calculators were comparable to typewriters in the 17th century but have since been replaced by small electronic calculators. Modern electronic calculators perform a wide range of activities, from simple arithmetic to complicated mathematics. They have improved our capability to conduct basic calculations and our ability to comprehend mathematics on a larger scale than we could have envisioned. There are many different types of calculators, some of which are given below.

Basic calculator. In practically every company and home, a basic, portable calculator is used. It is ideal for general-purpose calculation and elementary math problems, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and logarithm. This calculator often has an 8- to 12-digit display (LCD seven-segment display) and physical input keys. The basic calculator runs on both battery and solar energy: the battery is used when there isn't enough light to run the device, and solar energy is used when there is enough light.

Scientific calculator. Scientific calculators are explicitly made for solving science, engineering, and mathematics issues. Some of these calculators can perform statistical and trigonometric computations, and some even have computer algebra features. Casio is currently a key player in this sector. Boolean math, fractions, hexadecimal calculations, probability calculations, physical constants, complex numbers, calculus, unit conversion, and matrix calculations are all standard features of high-end scientific calculators.

Graphing сalculator. A graphing calculator has a larger display than the standard one, which allows it to display multiple lines of text, figures, and calculations at once. Plot graphs, solve simultaneous equations, and perform tasks with variables are all possible with graphing calculators. These calculators can be linked to sensors such as electronic accelerometers, pH meters, electronic thermometers, and weather stations to act as data loggers.

Printing сalculator. Before personal computers became commonplace, printing calculators were quite popular. They're simple calculators that print out data on paper and show them on an LCD screen. Printing calculators are currently available in desktop and portable variants that work on batteries or AC power. Shopkeepers and accountants use printing calculators to print bill receipts, calculate profit margins, and keep track of time for payroll.

Online calculator. Many calculators are available online and are made to complete specific duties. For instance, a calorie calculator can calculate how many calories a person needs each day. This calculator can also provide some easy weight-gain or weight-loss advice. On the other hand, pregnancy calculators are designed to forecast a woman's due date based on vital pregnancy data. Other online calculators, such as calorie calculators, can assist people in determining how many calories they should consume each day to lose or maintain their weight.

BMI calculator - A BMI calculator uses weight and height to calculate body mass index. The body mass index (BMI) is a technique that uses a person's height to assess their normal weight range. It is extensively used to detect individuals who are overweight or obese, and it provides a rough estimate of body fat percentage. A BMI calculator computes BMI by dividing your weight by the square root of your height (in kilograms per square meter).

Specifically, the BMI value determines whether a person is a healthy weight, under-weight, average weight, over-weight, or obese, based on where the value falls within the range. These BMI levels vary by geography and age and are frequently subdivided into subcategories like severely under-weight or severely obese. BMI = kg/m2, where kg represents a person's weight in kilograms, and m2 represents their height in meters squared. Over-weight is defined as a BMI of 25.0 or higher, while the healthy range is 18.5 to 24.9.

Percentage calculator. A percentage calculator calculates various percentage-related numbers, such as the percentage difference between two values. You may calculate percentages and unknowns in equations using percent formulae or solve the equations or add or subtract a percentage from a number. For percentage problems, there are numerous formulas. The most fundamental formula is X/Y = P x 100.

Fraction calculator. A fraction is a piece of a whole or, more broadly, any number of equal pieces. In ordinary English, a fraction denotes the number of pieces of a specific size, such as one-half, eight-fifths, or three-quarters. Basic and sophisticated fraction operations, expressions with fractions combined with integers, decimals, and mixed numbers are all performed by a fraction calculator.

Tik Tok money calculator. If you are an influencer, you may use the TikTok money calculator to estimate your profits from your TikTok account based on your interaction and amount of followers.

Algebra calculator. Algebra, in broad terms, is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols in formulas; it is a common thread that runs through practically all of mathematics. An algebra calculator is a tool that provides step-by-step assistance with algebra problems.

Integral calculator. An integral calculator is a mathematical instrument that makes evaluating integrals simple. The online integral calculator is a quick and accurate solution to various integral problems. Integral calculator can handle both definite and indefinite integrals (antiderivatives), as well as functions with several variables.

Factoring calculator. Factorization, also known as factoring, represents a number or another mathematical object as the product of numerous factors, which are usually smaller or simpler objects of the same kind. A factoring calculator determines a number's factors or divisors. Any positive non-zero integer factors and factor pairs are found using a factor calculator.

## What’s inside a calculator?

If you disassembled a 19th-century calculator, you'd find hundreds of parts inside: a slew of precision gears, axles, rods, and levers, all lubricated to the max and clicking, whirring away every time you typed a number. When you disassemble a modern electronic calculator, you might be surprised at how little you uncover. Here’s what you will find in a physical calculator:

• Keyboard. Around 40 tiny plastic keys with a rubber membrane and a touch-sensitive circuit beneath them.

• Processor. A processor is a microchip that performs all of the work. This performs the same function as an early calculator's hundred of gears.

• Output. The numbers you enter and the results of your calculations are displayed on a liquid crystal display (LCD).

• Power source. Battery with an extended life span. Some calculators include a solar cell for free power during the day.

## Functions of a calculator

A 4-function calculator is another name for a basic calculator. It can perform basic mathematics, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. This type of calculator has the following memory and precise functions:

• mc = clear memory

• m- = memory minus

• m+ = memory plus. The number displayed is added to the contents of the memory when you press this button. You can access more memory by hitting the shift key before clicking this button, which will change to Mn+.

• mn+ = memory n plus. This button, which is accessible by pressing the shift button, can be used to add to one of ten memories (labeled 0-9). After hitting Mn+, select the chosen memory by clicking the number button. The default memory is the memory number zero (i.e., the memory referred to by the un-shifted memory buttons).

• mnIn = memory input. Using this button, which is acquired by pushing the shift button, enter a value into one of ten memory (labeled 0-9). After hitting MnIn, select the chosen memory by pressing the number button. The default memory is memory number zero (i.e., the memory referred to by the un-shifted memory buttons).

• mr = memory recall. This button, which is accessible by pressing the shift button, allows you to access one of ten memories (labeled 0-9). After hitting Mr, select the desired memory by clicking the number button. The default memory is memory number zero (i.e., the memory referred to by the un-shifted memory buttons).

• CE = clear entry (clears the last number or entry).

• AC = all clear. It clears and resets the calculator's functions. AC does not affect the contents of the memory. By pressing Min after pressing AC, the memory can be cleared.

• + = plus. To add two numbers, use the "+" button between them. To add 10 to 15, for example, press "10," "+," and then "15." To a series, add more numbers. To add to the sum of "5 + 10," for example, press "+" and "5". To get the total of "20," use the "=" button when you need the final result.

• - = minus. To subtract the second number from the first, press the "-" button between any two integers. To subtract 5 from 7, press "7," "-," and then "5", then "=" to get a result of "2." Subtract more integers from a sequence. To get a final answer of "0," press "-" and "2" to subtract from the total of "2 – 7," then press "=". After you've added the numbers, try subtracting them.

• / ÷ = division. Press "2," "," and "1," then "=" to divide 2 by 1. Press "4," "/," "5", and then "=" to convert the fraction 4/5 to a decimal.  The division key on a conventional calculator is most likely "." By pressing "÷" or "/" followed by a number, you can divide it into a series. If your calculator shows "2 ÷ 1," for example, press "÷" "2," and then "=" to get a final answer of "1."

• x = multiplication. Press "6," "x," "5", and then "=" to multiply 6 by 5. "30" will be the final answer. Multiplication keys on physical calculators are frequently "x," " Press "x," or "*" followed by a number to multiply in a series. If your calculator says "6 x 5," for example, hit "x," "2," and then "=" to get the final answer of "60."

• = equals. The result of an arithmetic operation is shown. It can ensure that an intermediate result has been assessed throughout a calculation. An operation may be unfinished until the = button is touched; pressing = assures no arithmetic operations are pending. Certain functions employ the = button to indicate the end of input to evaluate a result.

• √x = square root

• π = Pi symbol. The value of pi is displayed by this button (shifted Exp button) (the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.

• x2 = Square

• R2 = round to 2 decimals

• R0 = round to 0 decimals

• % = percent

• delete/backspace = deletes one character at a time from the right part of the display.

• EXP = exponent. Enter a number in exponential form using this button. For instance, press the following buttons to enter the number 1.234 x 10^6 (1.234E6): 1 . 2 3 4 EXP 6.

• 0-9 = number buttons. In all modes, the number buttons are used. They are supplemented by the letters A through F in Hexadecimal mode. The 8 and 9 buttons are deactivated in Octal mode. Only the numbers 0 and 1 are enabled in Binary mode. For statistical functions in statistical mode, the numerical buttons are combined with the Shift button.

• shift = Shift. Use to gain access to additional features. The accessible functions are determined by the calculator mode, as shown by changes in the labels on the calculator buttons.

• Errors. If an error occurs, the calculator display will show an appropriate notification and maybe further descriptive information. The calculator operations are blocked when specific problems occur, and you must clear the error by pressing the AC button.

• Until you press m+ or m-, the calculator memory is set to 0. The number on display is added to the number in the calculator memory each time you press m+. The number on display is deducted from the number in the calculator memory each time you press m-. Press mr to recall the number from the calculator's memory. To clear the memory, type mc.

## Calculator operating modes

Standard calculators are relatively easy to operate, but they cannot solve as many complex problems as online scientific calculators. Standard calculators are only good for basic math. The basic calculator comes with 16 to 26 buttons in all. They can multiply, divide, and add. Simple calculators are suitable for use in homes, workplaces, and primary schools.

## How does the display work in a calculator?

A tiny matrix of specks called pixels creates characters and numbers on a computer screen. A modern LCD panel has millions of pixels and is almost as clear and sharp as a printed book. Early computers had only a few pixels and looked dotty and grainy. When you look closely at a calculator's digits, you'll notice that each one is made up of a different pattern of seven bars or sections.

By activating a distinct combination of these seven sections, the processor chip recognizes it. Although not easy, some scientific calculators (more powerful electronic calculators with loads of built-in mathematical and scientific calculations) can show letters.

## How does the calculator add two numbers together?

Binary numbers. Humans work with decimal numbers (the integers 0–9). It's thought that this is because we have ten fingers and toes to count with. However, the numerals we employ to express quantities are arbitrary. Assume you have a large sum of money and want to tell me how wealthy you are. You can represent the coins with a symbol, which is exactly what a number is: a symbol that represents a quantity. If there were nineteen coins, you might use the symbols "1" and "9" written together: 19. When added up, 1x10 + 9x1 equals 19. That is how the decimal system with ten symbols works. Other symbols, however, could also be used.

Decimal to binary conversion. The first thing a calculator must do is transform the decimal numbers you enter into binary values it can understand, which it does with the help of a relatively simple circuit known as a BCD (binary coded decimal) encoder. Ten "input" keys are connected to four output lines. Each input is wired so that it activates one or more of the outputs, allowing the conversion to take place entirely through the wiring arrangement. For example, key 1 only activates the right-hand line, yielding an output of 0001 in binary, whereas key 7 activates three of the four lines, yielding 0111 in binary (4 + 2 + 1).

Logic gates with binary. Suppose you want to calculate 3 + 2 = 5. A calculator solves a problem like this by converting the two integers to binary, yielding 101 (5 in binary = 1 4 + 0 2 + 1 1) by adding 11 (which is 3 in binary = 1 2 + 1 1) and 10 (2 in binary = 1 2 + 0 1). This is accomplished by utilizing a logic gate to compare the active switch pattern and generate a new switch pattern instead. A logic gate is a simple electrical circuit that compares two numbers (inputs) and generates a third number (an output) based on the original numbers' values. OR, AND, NOT, and XOR are the four most popular forms of logic gates.

## Example of calculations you can make using a calculator

• Look for the number pad and the four basic operations of multiplication, addition, subtraction, and division. Make the appropriate keystrokes and then press ENTER to conduct a computation; for instance, press 4 ÷ 2 ENTER. The calculator should display the expected result, 2.

• Try some simple calculations, such as 5 + 7 and 9 + 6, and keep the following in mind: is the input on the screen still visible after you press ENTER? Can you use the arrow keys to go back and forth between prior inputs? What type of calculator you have will determine the answers to these questions.

• Another function may be to put in small text above each key on your calculator. These extra functions are less typically utilized than the others, but you may need to use them in the future. Find a second SHIFT or ALPHA key.

• 4*4=16 - the calculator can rapidly handle this method.

• 40/4=10 - the division will be completed in a fraction of a second, saving a significant amount of time.

• 1+5+6=10 - the calculator will handle this with ease.

• Even though 2*2/8=0.5 is not an integer; the answer will be rapid and clear. The calculator will handle this scenario's root or entered percentage value calculation.

• Series of operations. Some calculators will perform the given operations in the correct order for 5 + 3 – 2 x 4. However, some calculators need you to perform multiplication first, then use the = key, followed by addition and subtraction. To figure out how your calculator works, try it both ways. If the answer is zero, you are correct. When performing multi-step calculations with a calculator or computer, keep all significant digits and round off the final figure to the appropriate number of significant digits after the calculation.

• Some other calculations to try: 6 x 5 + 3 ÷ 2 - 6 = 25.5

• 3 x (4 + 6 x (8 + 2)) = 192

• 4 ÷ 3 x (4 x 10 XY 15 ) = 5.33333333315

## How to copy or delete results?

• The Memory Plus function is activated when the user pushes the "M+" keys. It gives the information in Memory more value (in the first case, this value is zero).

• The calculator uses the minus memory function when you press the "M-" button. This operation subtracts the current value from the memory value.

• The memory recall function is activated by pressing the "MR" button. This action pulls a value from Memory and displays it on the calculator's screen. The value has not been erased from Memory.

• Delete a value from memory by pressing the "C" button twice.

• To copy the results of computations, hold down the button and then select "Copy" from the pop-up menu. Select the relevant function from the menu, such as "Paste," by clicking on the calculator box to paste the result.

## How to perform complex calculations?

A calculator can perform complex computations such as trigonometric functions, logarithm, modulus, exponential functions, etc. Even fractions can be entered into the calculator. For instance:

Add two fractions; the calculator first brings them to the same denominator, then adds the numerators, resulting in an irreducible fraction. The calculator returns all steps for computing the sum of fractions. You can combine fractions and other algebraic expressions, and the result is returned as a fraction after calculation.

Subtract two fractions, get them to the same denominator on the calculator, and then subtract the numerators. In addition, the calculator will simplify the fraction before returning the total. The calculator returns the specifics of the calculations used to arrive at the different fraction. Fractions can be subtracted from each other and other algebraic expressions; the result is delivered as a fraction after calculation.

Another example: when using a calculator to calculate the square root, seek the correct symbol, enter a numeric value, and press the equals key.